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The main bridge of Qingdao Gulf Bridge constructed by Shandong High-speed Group has been linked up successfully



On December 22, 2010, the main bridge of Qingdao Gulf Bridge invested and constructed by Shandong High-speed Expressway has been linked up successfully with the last concrete box beam successfully cast, which indicates the completion of main work of first phase that mainly includes three navigable spans and two interchanges. The next step will focus on construction of road of bridge, power supply and distribution, fence, lighting, housing and landscape etc.. Although there are difficulties such as conversion of upper and lower engineering, great length and wide range, foggy days in the sea, fluctuation in international financial market, great increase in price for materials, earthquake, waterside moss or ice on the bridge, we overcome them and insist on construction as usual. With our hard work and struggle, we have better finished the construction of the bridge, which is expected to be opened for traffic before June next year.

There are nearly 20,000 people involved in the construction of the bridge ever since its commencement in May 2007. It needs about 450,000 tons of steel to construct the Qingdao Gulf Bridge, equal to more than one month production of a super large steel plant which produces over tens of millions tons of steel a year. It also needs about 2.3 million m3 of concrete. In addition, the main tower of Dagu Channel Bridge, the magic cudgel of Qingdao Gulf Bridge, is 149m of height, as tall as a 50-floor high-rising building; the biggest span of Cangkou Channel Bridge is 260m; it is the first ocean interchange in China, namely, Red Island Interchange of Qingdao Gulf Bridge; Dagu Channel Bridge is the first self-anchored suspension bridge with single tower in the world; The technology of non-bottom sealing concrete pouring jacket underwater, the first one in the world independently developed by Shandong High-speed Group, has won special award for scientific and technological advance from China Highway Association in 2009 and obtained two national patents and first national method from 2007 to 2008. The 4D engineering management system is firstly applied in large transportation project after its application in “Bird Nest”-Beijing Olympic Stadium in 2008, which has won first prize of science and technology in Huaxia construction of Ministry of Construction in 2009.

The high-tech plus fine work of constructors ensure the sound use of bridge for 100 years.

Construction features of Qingdao Gulf Bridge are as follows:

1. Long ice period: Jiaozhou Bay, where the bridge is located, has an annual ice period of around 60 days and the annual freeze thawing cycle is 50 times; 2. High saline: Saline degree of Jiaozhou Bay is around 29.4‰ ~32.6‰, which is next to 2 times of other cross-sea bridge in China; 3. High environmental protection requirement: Qingdao is the national tourism city in China; construction of the bridge has to be coordinated with the environment firstly; sea area where the bridge locates is abundant in sea creatures, which is demanding as for environment protection during construction and operation; 4. Dual limitation from shipping and airline: Navigation standard of Cangkou navigable bridge is the ship weighed 10 thousand ton and the clearance is 190*40.5m. Limited height of airline is 120m. Tower height above the bridge and arrangement space for the pulling rope is limited; 5. It is the longest cross-sea bridge, with an overall length exceeding 41.58km; 6. Number of punching bored concrete pile in the sea of the bridge is 5127, which ranks first worldwide; 7. It is the first cross-sea bridge in the world to adopt low pile cap; 8. The non-bottom sealing technology in concrete pouring jacket is the first in the world.

The Qingdao Gulf Bridge invested and constructed by Shandong High-speed Group is the largest traffic infrastructure engineering invested by single state-owned enterprise in China, the first super large bridge complex engineering in frozen sea of north China, as well as the starting point of Qingdao-Lanzhou Expressway. It is the “Bridge Project” of “Expressway, Bridge and Tunnel Project” spanning from east to west over the sea in Qingdao municipal planning, which is as long as 41.58km including approach span and linking way. It is the longest ocean bridge in the world with 28.880km in phase I and 12.7km in phase II. At present, phases I and II have been started construction, which will be completed and put into use in the next year successively. The phase I starts from 200m at the north of Licun River Bridge of Jiaozhou Bay neighboring to Qingdao and ends at Red Cliff neighboring to Yellow Island, which links up to the newly built South Line of Jinan-Qingdao Expressway. The bridge includes two-way six-lane expressway and urban eight-lane highway with the designed speed of 80km/h and 35m of width. The designed life is 100 years.

After the completion, the bridge will become Blue Economic Zone of Shandong Province and the important traffic hub for “protecting and developing along the bay” strategy of Qingdao, which reduces the distance of 30km from Qingdao to Yellow Island and saves 20 minutes in driving. This will further complete traffic system in east and west Qingdao, enlarge the municipal territory of Qingdao and reduce the time space from Qingdao to Small Qingdao, Red Island and Yellow Island. The completion of Qingdao Gulf Bridge will further build up leadership for Qingdao in Shandong Blue Economic Zone, promoting development for this zone with harmonious coordination of sea and land.

The project of Qingdao Gulf Bridge is a public tender Qingdao Municipal Government issued to the world by the form of franchising, which has been won by Shandong High-speed Group with its good reputation, great fund and sold technical strength and rich experience, being the project legal representative with 25 years of franchising of Qingdao Gulf Bridge. Within the franchising period, Qingdao Gulf Bridge will be jointly operated with the Jiaozhou Bay Expressway. The total estimation for the engineering is RMB 9.53 billion.

Phase I includes engineering of Cangkou Channel Bridge, Red Island Channel Bridge and Dagu Channel Bridge, non-navigable spans and approach span, wiring engineering to Yellow Island and Red Island wiring, Licun River interchange, Red Island interchange, toll stations in Qingdao and Red Island, four toll stations and management facility in circuit of Licun River interchange. The span of Cangkou Channel Bridge and Red Island Channel Bridge is 260m and 120m, the rare cable-stayed bridge with simple and clear structure and originality. Dagu Channel Bridge is self-anchored suspend bridge with a span of 260m and single tower and single space cable structure, main beam of which is doubling piece of steel box beam + horizontal connection box, making the structure powerful and full of vigor. It is the first adoption in China. Non-navigable span has adopted continuous beams constructed by 60m-span separated double width, with erection for the whole span, advanced construction, reasonable design, which improves construction quality and speed up progress. The beach in west bank has adopted continuous beams constructed by 50m-Span mobile scaffold, which base is piled by holes drilled underwater.

The construction of bridge has been started research in April 1993, during which the processes of planning, pre-feasibility study, feasibility study, initial design, construction drawing preparation and bidding have been carried out. 13 years and 8 months have been past since the start of the engineering, which includes the effort and wisdom of hundreds of domestic and foreign experts and scholars, such as academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of Engineering and Yangtze River Scholars.

Being restricted by requirements of environmental protection, navigation, aviation, climate, hydrology, topography and geological structure, the construction conditions of Qingdao Gulf Bridge are very complicated. So do the technical difficulties. There are several innovations in technology need to be carried out. Staying in the sea with higher salinity, the bridge shall have greater duration and be more environment-friendly; staying in the cold sea, it has to suffer 40 to 52 times of natural freezing weather in a year; staying in the wide and shallow sea, it has to make decision on various marine bridge construction solutions and techniques. There must be experts and science to guide us to solve above-mentioned problems to ensure the smooth construction for the bridge.

For the sake of safe quality in Qingdao Gulf Bridge construction, Shandong High-speed Group is bold to be creative and bring in new structure, new techniques and new materials. Now it has achieved several technological developments successfully and built up cooperation with world famous consultancies such as COWI from Denmark and Chodai Co., Ltd. from Japan. At present, the Group has won 3 national prizes, 11 provincial prizes, 21 new records for Chinese enterprises, 1 municipal prize, and 10 scientific research projects have been approved by provincial government and ministry. The technology of non-bottom sealing concrete pouring jacket underwater has won special award for scientific and technological advance from China Highway Association in 2009; it also honored as the first national method from 2007 to 208 and obtained two national patents. “Research and application of 4D construction management based on IFC standard” won the first prize as “Huaxia scientific and technology award for construction” from housing and construction department in 2009. Recyclable pouring jacket cofferdam won the first prize for Shandong highway scientific and technological innovation. Research of temperature reduction in cement concrete won second prize from China Highway Association for technological advance in 2009. Three-dimensional satellite positioning and measuring control system of high-precision of Qingdao Gulf Bridge won the second prize for Shandong technological advance. “Build Dynamic Warning System for Qingdao Gulf Bridge Engineering” won Management Innovative Achievement for Shandong Enterprise in 2010.

Introduction to non-bottom sealing concrete pouring jacket underwater

Qingdao Gulf Bridge has 1258 cushion caps of various types. In order to meet the requirement on landscape in Jiaozhou Bay, those cushion caps are set in splash zone and water-level fluctuation areas, which makes the construction environment difficult in that Jiaozhou Bay belongs to freezing sea area and the water contains much salt with high erosion. In addition, among current built cross-sea bridges, cracking problems of concrete pouring jacket incurred by discordant deformation of new and old concrete remain unsolved. As for the above problem Shandong High-speed Group (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. has developed “Key technology of non-bottom sealing concrete pouring jacket underwater”, which successfully solved the problems of construction of underwater cushion caps, anti-erosion, anti-crashing etc. There are four core achievements of the technology, first of which is the invention of non-bottom sealing technology of gas-filled capsule underwater; it realizes the innovation of non-bottom sealing 10m under water and the vital breakthrough in cofferdam technology in China. The second achievement is the invention of elastic stress absorption layer to prevent the pouring jacket from cracking, solving the difficult problem as cracking concrete pouring jacket successfully; the third achievement is the invention of improvement in durability of cushion caps by pouring jacket and the fourth achievement is the invention of improvement in anti-crashing capability of cushion caps through pouring jacket.

Achievements have been successfully applied in 6 contracted sections of Qingdao Gulf Bridge, cushion caps construction of cross-sea bridge from Qingdao Jimo to Yangdingzi river mouth, winning RMB0.16 billion economic profit. The core technology has been applied in designing documents of Hongkong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge. The technology won special award for scientific and technological advance from China Highway Association in 2009; it also honored as the first national method, obtained two national patents, two new records in domestic enterprises and the first “Key innovation achievements of enterprises in Shandong” from 2007 to 2008.

Research and application of 4D construction management system based on construction projects of IFC standard

4D construction management system based on construction projects of IFC standard and management system of engineering project, video-monitoring system on the construction site and shipping positioning coordination system as four branch systems have made up the information system of management of construction for Qingdao Gulf Bridge. The system covers each business scope of bridge construction, integrating information technology such as 4D progress, real-time monitoring on the spot and combination of data analysis, thus realizing the all-round and overall process dynamic monitoring. Since its launch in September 2007, the system has provided guarantee for quality and safety of construction in Qingdao Gulf Bridge.

The technology won the first prize of “Huaxia scientific and technological construction” in 2009, which is the highest scientific and technological prize in construction industry in China. Besides the “Special award for scientific and technological advance in 2009 from China Highway Association” for “non-bottom sealing concrete pouring jacket underwater”, the group has obtained the two highest scientific and technological awards in the field of highway traffic project and construction industry in China.

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